Computer Fundamentals Tutorial (Part-1):

Introduction to Computers:

Definition of COMPUTER: A Computer is a high-speed electronic device, which can perform any type of calculation like Mathematical and Logical. It can also story any amount of data, it can retrieve any data within no time.

Full form of Computer:
The full form of computer tells us what is the exact use of the computers.
C : Commonly
O : Operating
M : Machine
P : Particularly
U : Used For
T : Trade (Business)
E : Education
R : Research (Development Process)

Why we are using computers:

To store the data, to perform all type of calculations like scientific and cmmertial applications,for entertainment, etc..

Where we are using computers:
In small organisation and big organisations like banks, hotels, petrol bunks, colleges, institutes, cinema industry etc..

Advantages of Computers:
(i) Speed: The speed of the computer is incredible. The measuring term of its working capacity is MIPS(Million Instruction Per Second). In the form of time measurment following terms are used.
>> 1 Milli Second --> 1000 sec
>> 1 Micro second --> 10^6 sec
>> 1 Nano Second  --> 10^9 sec
>> 1 Pico Second  --> 10^12 sec

Actual term for measuring speed of a computer is hertz (number of cycles per second), general values as the speed of computer are 100MHz, 233MHz, 600MHz,.....3.0GHz, 3.2GHz.

(ii) Accuracy: The result of a computer-oriented calculation is 100% correct. It fails to give correct result when the internal component of a computer is not functioning properly. The data given to the computer may be wrong in feeding. These are some of the situations where
computer can give adverse results.

(iii) Diligence : Computer performs its given job, for hours and hours continuosly without any break if it is provided regular constant power supply and the environment should be maintain with a constant temperature. If these things are provided it will work for days and
days continuosly.

(iii) Versatility: To switch over from one field to the other is called as versatile nature. Computer takes less span of time to change from one field to the other, i.e, they are having high versatile nature.

Ex:- A computer busy with accounting work can immediately play the music by taking short time. It can be back to the accounting work within less time.

(iv) Storage Capacity: In a computer, information can be stored in large quantities. This information should exist in its language. The known language of a computer is binary language where 0's and 1 are the existing symbols. 0's and 1's are called as binary digits(Bits).

Disadvantages of Computers:
(i) Lack of Common Sense: computers can work as human beings but there is a log of difference between the machine and the men. The computer is only a tool. It cannot thing. It does not have common sense or intellignece as humans have.Computers never get good ideas as human being. COmputers are to be instructed for making them perform any task.So every time we want to use computers for a given task, we need to first tell computer what to do.

(ii) Inability to Correct: When we give instuction to computers we must give correct instructions to a computer cannot correct wrong instruction. If there is a mistake in given data to the computer the end results are wrong.

(iii) Dependence on Human Instructions: Computers look as if they are very lever. Actually they are only tools.They acannot do anything unless they are instructed by a man. A computer cannot generate any information on its own. It can only do what it is instructed.

    Computer performs any operation depending upon a principle called
IPO cycle. Hence it is called as System.

IPO cycle:
    I    -     Input
    P    -    Process
    O    -    Output

Father of Computer: Charles Babbage was invented this principle and he was also given memory to the computer. Hence he is considered as father of the computers.